The AfricaSan Conference agreed on critical actions that should be further developed, funded, and monitored until 2010. This document presents some critical challenges and issues identified by delegates; it states the current situation on the topic areas, details responsibility for action, and how progress will be measured. The lead agency is identified in each case, and it will be responsible for driving the action. However, each activity must be developed with collective responsibility among other key institutions and agencies with a stake in sanitation and hygiene. This includes ensuring that actions are taken within the context of country legal and policy framework and include the long term objective of sustainability.