The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal position of successor states with regard to international treaty commitments. A case study of the Nile Water Agreements is undertaken to clarify the rights and duties of states with regard to water treaties in general and Nile waters in particular. This study is considered useful because the status of the Nile as a shared water resource, and the emergence of new states on its basin, dictate that a legal regime to regulate access to its waters has to be negotiated in the 21st Century. It is, therefore, necessary to clarify the historical and contemporary situation in order to prepare for the future. It may also be useful to remind riparian states of their fundamental interests in the Nile waters and treaty negotiations.